United Nations. World Population Prospects 2019 (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2019).
Parnell, S. & Walawege, R. Sub-Saharan African urbanisation and global environmental change. Glob. Environ. Change 21, S12–S20 (2011).
Jayne, T. S., Anriquez, G. & Collier, E. African Agriculture Toward 2030: Changes in Urbanization and Agricultural Land Dynamics and Their Implications for CGIAR Research (Independent Science and Partnership Council, 2013).
Bremner, J. Population and Food Security: Africa’s Challenge (Population Reference Bureau, Policy Brief, 2012).
Melo, P. et al. Income Elasticities of Food Demand in Africa: A Meta-analysis (Office of the European Union, 2015).
Nhemachena, C. et al. Climate change impacts on water and agriculture sectors in Southern Africa: Threats and opportunities for sustainable development. Water 12(10), 2673 (2020).
Alboghdady, M. & El-Hendawy, S. E. Economic impacts of climate change and variability on agricultural production in the Middle East and North Africa region. Int. J. Clim. Change Strateg. Manag. 8(3), 463–472 (2016).
Schilling, J., Hertig, E., Tramblay, Y. & Scheffran, J. Climate change vulnerability, water resources and social implications in North Africa. Reg. Environ. Change 20(1), 7 (2020).
Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa. Africa Agriculture Status Report: Catalyzing Government Capacity to Drive Agricultural Transformation (Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa, 2018).
Irz, X., Lin, L., Thirtle, C. & Wiggins, S. Agricultural productivity growth and poverty alleviation. Dev. Policy Rev. 19(4), 449–466 (2001).
Timmer, P. Agriculture and pro-poor growth: An Asian perspective. SSRN Electron. J. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.984256 (2005).
Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU. The Digitalization of African Agriculture Report 2018–2019 (Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU, 2019).
Krishnan, A., Banga, K. & Mendez-Parra, M. Disruptive Technologies in Agricultural Value Chains: Insights from East Africa (Overseas Development Institute, 2020).
Kozai, T. Towards sustainable plant factories with artificial lighting (PFALs) for achieving SDGs. Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng. 12(5), 28–37 (2019).
Avgoustaki, D. D. & Xydis, G. How energy innovation in indoor vertical farming can improve food security, sustainability, and food safety? Adv. Food Secur. Sustain. 5, 1–51 (2020).
Benke, K. & Tomkins, B. Future food-production systems: Vertical farming and controlled-environment agriculture. Sustain. Sci. Pract. Policy 13(1), 13–26 (2017).
Kozai, T. Designing a cultivation system module (CSM) considering the cost performance: A step toward smart PFALs. In Smart Plant Factory: The Next Generation Indoor Vertical Farms (ed. Kozai, T.) 57–80 (Springer, 2018).
Nimaan, M. & Sezgin, M. Vertical farming in Africa a solution for a sustainable agriculture: Review. In 4th EurasianBioChem Conference (2021).
Kalicka-Mikołajczyk, A. The international legal status of Western Sahara. Opol. Stud. Adm.-Prawne 18(4), 35–47 (2021).
De Zeeuw, H., Van Veenhuizen, R. & Dubbeling, M. The role of urban agriculture in building resilient cities in developing countries. J. Agric. Sci. 149(S1), 153–163 (2011).
International Labour Office. Report on Employment in Africa (Re-Africa)—Tackling the Youth Employment Challenge (International Labour Office, 2020).
Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use (M49). https://unstats.un.org/unsd/methodology/m49/ (UNSD, Accessed 5 February 2022).
Abdillahi, M. N. & Sezgin, M. Vertical farming in Africa a solution for a sustainable agriculture: Review. (In 4th International EurasianBioChem, 2021).
Moolna, A. & Thompson, B. S. The Blue Economy Approach for Sustainability in Seychelles and East Africa (Keele University Institute for Sustainable Futures, 2018).
Radhouane, L. Climate change impacts on North African countries and on some Tunisian economic sectors. J. Agric. Environ. Int. Dev. 107(1), 101–113 (2013).
Stein, E. W. The transformative environmental effects large-scale indoor farming may have on air, water, and soil. Air Soil Water Res. 14, 117862212199581 (2021).
World Bank. World Development Indicators. https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators (Accessed 1 March 2022).
Rahmann, G., Grimm, D., Kuenz, A. & Hessel, E. Combining land-based organic and landless food production: A concept for a circular and sustainable food chain for Africa in 2100. Org. Agric. 10(1), 9–21 (2019).
Jayne, T. S., Chamberlin, J. & Benfica, R. Africa’s unfolding economic transformation. J. Dev. Stud. 54(5), 777–787 (2018).
Etim, E. & Daramola, O. The informal sector and economic growth of South Africa and Nigeria: A comparative systematic review. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 6(4), 134 (2020).
Liebenberg, F., Pardey, P. & Kahn, M. South African Agricultural Research and Development: A Century of Change (University of Minnesota, 2010).
Lynam, J., Beintema, N., Roseboom, J. & Badiane, O. Agricultural Research in Africa: Investing in Future Harvests (International Food Policy Research Institute, 2016).
Martin, M., Weidner, T. & Gullström, C. Estimating the potential of building integration and regional synergies to improve the environmental performance of urban vertical farming. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 6, 849304 (2022).
Ibragimova, A., Wang, Y. & Ivanov, M. Infrastructure development in Africa’s regions: Investment trends and challenges. E3S Web Conf. 295, 01029 (2021).
Branca, G., Tennigkeit, T., Mann, W. & Lipper, L. Identifying Opportunities for Climate-Smart Agriculture Investments in Africa (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2012).
Suri, T. Selection and comparative advantage in technology adoption. Econometrica 79(1), 159–209 (2011).
Sheng, J. Vertical Farming Feasibility: The Opportunities and Challenges of Adapting Vertical Agriculture (University of British Columbia, 2018).
World Bank. Tracking SDG 7: The Energy Progress Report (World Bank, 2021).
Economic Commission for Africa, African Union Commission, African Development Bank. Africa Water Vision for 2025: Equitable and Sustainable Use of Water for Socioeconomic Development (Economic Commission for Africa, African Union Commission, African Development Bank, 2003).
Al-Kodmany, K. The vertical farm: A review of developments and implications for the Vertical City. Buildings 8(2), 24 (2018).
Fischer, G., Tubiello, F. N., van Velthuizen, H. & Wiberg, D. A. Climate change impacts on irrigation water requirements: Effects of mitigation, 1990–2080. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 74(7), 1083–1107 (2007).
Wallace, J. Increasing agricultural water use efficiency to meet future food production. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 82(1–3), 105–119 (2000).
AlShrouf, A. Hydroponics, aeroponic and aquaponic as compared with conventional farming. ASRJETS 27(1), 247–255 (2017).
Jayne, T., Yeboah, F. K. & Henry, C. The Future of Work in African Agriculture: Trends and Drivers of Change (International Labour Office, 2017).
Newfarmer, R. & Twum, A. Employment Creation Potential, Labor Skills Requirements and Skill Gaps for Young People: A Rwanda Case Study (Africa Growth Initiative at Brookings, Report, 2022).
Borgwardt, H. & Endress, J. Conception of a Vertical Farm for the Maun Science Park in Botswana (HTWG Konstanz, 2022).
Avgoustaki, D. D. & Xydis, G. Indoor vertical farming in the urban nexus context: Business growth and resource savings. Sustainability 12(5), 1965 (2020).
Tesfai, M., Branca, G., Cacchiarelli, L., Perelli, C. & Nagothu, U. S. Transition towards bio-based economy in small-scale agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa through sustainable intensification. In The Bioeconomy Approach (ed. Nagothu, U. S.) 83–106 (Routledge, 2020).
Attig-Bahar, F., Ritschel, U., Akari, P., Abdeljelil, I. & Amairi, M. Wind energy deployment in Tunisia: Status, drivers, barriers and research gaps—A comprehensive review. Energy Rep. 7, 7374–7389 (2021).
Zahraoui, Y., Basir Khan, M. R., AlHamrouni, I., Mekhilef, S. & Ahmed, M. Current status, scenario, and prospective of renewable energy in Algeria: A review. Energies 14(9), 2354 (2021).
Al-Chalabi, M. Vertical farming: Skyscraper sustainability? Sustain. Cities Soc. 18, 74–77 (2015).
Moghimi, F. & Asiabanpour, B. Economics of vertical farming: Quantitative decision model and a case study for different markets in the USA. Research Square (2021).
Specht, K. et al. Urban agriculture of the future: An overview of sustainability aspects of food production in and on buildings. Agric. Hum. Values 31(1), 33–51 (2013).
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). FAOstat. https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data (Accessed 15 March 2022).
Borrero, J. D. Expanding the level of technological readiness for a low-cost vertical hydroponic system. Inventions 6(4), 68 (2021).
Ward, R., Jans-Singh, M. & Choudhary, R. Quantifying the environmental and energy benefits of food growth in the urban environment. In Smart Plant Factory: The Next Generation Indoor Vertical Farms (ed. Kozai, T.) (Springer, 2018).
Tamagnone, P., Cea, L., Comino, E. & Rosso, M. Rainwater harvesting techniques to face water scarcity in African drylands: Hydrological efficiency assessment. Water 12(9), 2646 (2020).
Bartniczak, B. & Raszkowski, A. Sustainable development in African countries: An indicator-based approach and recommendations for the future. Sustainability 11(1), 22 (2019).
Erol, I. et al. Assessing the feasibility of blockchain technology in industries: Evidence from Turkey. J. Enterp. Inf. Manag. 34(3), 746–769 (2020).
De Muro, P., Mazziotta, M. & Pareto, A. Composite indices of development and poverty: An application to MDGs. Soc. Indic. Res. 104(1), 1–18 (2010).
Verma, P. & Raghubanshi, A. S. Urban sustainability indicators: Challenges and opportunities. Ecol. Indic. 93, 282–291 (2018).
Tapia, C., Randall, L., Wang, S. & Aguiar Borges, L. Monitoring the contribution of urban agriculture to urban sustainability: An indicator-based framework. Sustain. Cities Soc. 74, 103130 (2021).
Report of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2012).
Shpak, N., Muzychenko-Kozlovska, O., Gvozd, M. & Sroka, W. Simulation of the influence of external factors on the level of use of the regional tourism potential: A practical aspect. Adm. Sci. 11(3), 85 (2021).
Walesiak, M. Visualization of linear ordering results for metric data with the application of multidimensional scaling. Ekonometria 2, 01 (2016).
Strezov, V., Evans, A. & Evans, T. J. Assessment of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of the indicators for sustainable development. Sustain. Dev. 25(3), 242–253 (2016).
Radzka, E., Rymuza, K. & Jankowska, J. The assessment of drinking water quality using zero unitarization method. Arch. Environ. Prot. 41(4), 91–95 (2015).
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators. Methodology and User Guide (Joint Research Centre-European Commission, 2008).
Human Development Report 2014 (United Nations Development Programme, 2014).
Kiselakova, D., Stec, M., Grzebyk, M. & Sofrankova, B. A multidimensional evaluation of the sustainable development of European Union countries—An empirical study. J. Compet. 12(4), 56–73 (2020).